Abe Belkind


Abe Belkind is the president of A. Belkind & Associates, LLC. Dr. Abe Belkind has 20 years of experience in industrial research and development and more than 30 years experience in academia. From 1981 to 1996, he worked for BOC Coating Technology investigating and developing vacuum and plasma technologies and thin film coatings, and transferring the results to production. From 1996 to 2008, Dr. Belkind was a Research Professor in the Department of Materials Engineering and later in the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey. At Stevens he taught graduate courses in gas discharge physics and plasma processing and directed the John Vossen Laboratory for Thin Films and Vacuum Technology.

In 1997, Dr. Belkind created the consulting company Abe Belkind and Associates, Inc. (ABA) that has provided consulting to more than 30 clients that include large and small companies. Dr. Abe Belkind with his co-workers conducted research and development supported by government grants and contracts with industry. Dr. Belkind also gave seminars and one-day courses at both conferences and promises of private companies.

Dr. Belkind has a Ph.D. in Solid State Physics and Optics. His background covers significant parts of material science, thin film phenomena, and plasma and vacuum technologies. Dr. Belkind has received 10 patents, published a book and over 100 papers, made numerous presentations and chaired sessions at various technical conferences. He has received a BOC Group Technology Award and two Awards of the Latvian Academy of Science.

During his career, Dr. Belkind has initiated many projects, conducted teams of scientists and engineers, organized collaborations between industry and colleges, and has taken consulting engagements with government and private companies.

Dr. Belkind is a member of the American Vacuum Society, the Society of Vacuum Coaters, and Material Research Society.


  1. K. Memarzadeh, J.A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, Ellipsometric study of ZnO/Ag/ZnO optical coatings: Determination of layer thicknesses and optical constants, Proc. SPIE, 823, 54-61, (1987).
  2. K. Memarzadeh, J.A. Woollam, and A. Belkind, Variable Angle of Incidenc Spectroscopic Ellipsometric (VASE) Characterization of TiO2/Ag/TiO2 Optical Coatings, J. Appl. Phys., 64(7), 3407-3410 (1988).
  3. V. Koss, A. Belkind, K. Memarzadeh, and J.A. Woollam, Determination of optical constants of Ag layers in ZnO/Ag/ZnO coatings using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, Solar Energy Materials, 19, 67-78 (1989).
  4. A. Belkind, B. Kopp and R. Sherman, Deposition of AlOxFy films using dc reactive sputtering, Thin Solid Films, 199, 279-290 (1991).
  5. M. Moradi, C. Nender, S. Berg, H.-O. Blom, A. Belkind, and Z. Orban, Modeling of multicomponent reactive sputtering, J.Vac.Sci.Technol., A9, 619-624 (1991).
  6. R. Laird and A. Belkind, Co-sputtered films of mixed TiO2/SiO2, J.Vac.Sci.Technol., A 10 (1992) 1908.
  7. A. Belkind and Z. Orban, Magnetic biasing effects while using an unbalanced planar magnetron, J.Vac.Sci.Technol., A 11 (1993) 642-646.
  8. A.I. Belkind, Cosputtering and serial cosputtering using cylindrical rotatable magnetrons, J.Vac.SciTechnol., A11 (1993) 1501-1509.
  9. A. Belkind, S. Krommenhoek, H. Li, Z. Orban, and F. Jansen, Removal of oil from metals by plasma techniques, Surf.Coat.Technol., 68/69 (1994) 804-808.
  10. A. Belkind, H. Li, H. Clow, and F. Jansen, Oil removal from metals by linear multi-orifice hollow cathode, Surf.Coat.Technol, 76-77 (1995) 738.
  11. A. Belkind, F. Engle, and S. Zarrabian, Plasma cleaning of metals: lubricant oil removal, Metal Finishing, 94 (1996) 19.
  12. A. Belkind, F. Jansen, H. Li, and Z. Orban, An in situ XPS study of hollow cathode plasma cleaning and recontamination of an aluminum surface, Surf.Coat.Technol., 92 (1997) 171.
  13. A. Belkind and F. Jansen, Anode effects in magnetron sputtering, Surf.Coat.Technol., 99 (1998) 52.
  14. A. Belkind, A. Freilich, and R. Scholl, Pulse duration effects in pulse-power reactive sputtering of Al2O3, Surf.Coat.Technol., 108-109 (1998) 558.
  15. A. Belkind, A. Freilich, and R. Scholl, Using Pulsed DC Power for Reactive Sputtering of Al2O3., J.Vac.Sci.Technol., A 17 (1999) 1934.
  16. A. Belkind, Z. Zhao and R. Scholl, Dual-anode Magnetron Sputtering, Surface and Coating Technology, 163 -164 (2003) 695.
  17. A. Belkind, A. Freilich, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, Mid-Frequency Reactive Sputtering of Dielectrics: Al2O3, Surface and Coating Technology, 174-175 (2003) 88.
  18. A. E. Delahoy, S. Y. Guo, C. Paduraru and A. Belkind, Reactive-environment, hollow cathode sputtering: Basic characteristics and application to Al2O3, doped ZnO, and In2O3:Mo, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22 (2004) 1697.
  19. A Belkind, A Freilich, J Lopez, Z Zhao, W Zhu and K Becker, Characterization of pulsed dc magnetron sputtering plasmas, New Journal of Physics, 7 (2005) 90.
  20. J. Lopez, W. Zhu, A. Freilich, A. Belkind, and K. Becker, Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of pulsed DC magnetron sputtering plasmas, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 (2005) 1.
  21. A. Belkind, A. Freilich, and K Becker, Characterization of pulsed sputtering plasmas, New Journal of Physics, 7 (2005) 90.
  22. J. Lopez, W. Zhu, A. Freilich, A Belkind, and K Becker, Optical emission from pulsed dc magnetron sputtering plasmas, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 33 (2005) 348.
  23. J. Lopez, W. Zhu, A. Freilich, A Belkind, and K Becker, Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of pulsed DC magnetron sputtering plasmas, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 (2005) 1769.
  24. A. Belkind, W. Zhu, J. Lopez, and K Becker, Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy during pulsed dc magnetron sputter deposition of Ti and TiO2 thin films, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 15 (2006) S17.
  25. S. Gershman, O. Mozgina, A. Belkind, K. Becker, and E. Kunhardt, Electrical Discharges in Bubbled Water., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46 (2007) 19.
  26. C. Paduraru, K.H. Becker, A. Belkind, J.L. Lopez, Y.A. Gonzalvo, Characterization of the Remote Plasma Generated in a Pulsed-DC Gas-Flow Hollow-Cathode Discharge, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Physics, 35 (2007) 527.
  27. O. Mozgina, A. Koutsospyros, S. Gershman, A. Belkind, C. Christodoulatos, and K. Becker, Decomposition of Energetic Compounds by Pulsed Electrical Discharges in Gas-Bubbled Aqueous Solutions, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37, 905-910 (2009).
  28. S. Gershman, A. Belkind, and K. Becker, Optical emission diagnostics of the plasma channel in a pulsed electrical discharge in a gas bubble, IEEE Transactions Pulsed Power, Pulsed Power Conference, (2009) 838-843.
  29. S. Gershmana and A. Belkind, Time-resolved processes in a pulsed electrical discharge in argon bubbles in water, Eur. Phys. J. D 60 (2010) 661-672.
  30. S. Gershman, S. Zwicker, A Belkind, Pulsed electrical discharge propagation along the surface of liquid dielectricts, Pulsed Power Conference (PPC), (2013) 19th IEEE , vol. 1, no. 4, pp.16-21 June 201.
  31. J. Katz, S. Gershman, A. Belkind, Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Contact Angle Study of Plasma Cleaning of Titanium Alloy Surfaces: Argon Plasma, Plasma Medicine, 5 (2015) 223-236.